by Andrew Weiler

January 5, 2016

For many language learners (and their teachers) repetition is highly valued, whether it be repeating vocabulary, grammar conjugations, sounds or phrases.  This practice is so ingrained in many people's thinking and practices that they find it hard to see language learning without this practice as a core part of it.

There are in fact different kinds of repetition. At one end of the spectrum we have what I will describe as repetition as is commonly understood and practiced and at the other end there is something we could call "mindful" repetition. In reality, everyone's practice sits somewhere along that continuum. 

The first variety is where we believe that just by repeating, our practice or memory will improve. There are times where this repetition in its commonly understood form may seem to be doing the job, but when it is successful there are additional elements that language learners bring to what they may think as repetition.  So when this happens, practice of this kind sits somewhere up towards what I have called "mindful repetition."

Understanding what is meant by this kind of repetition ( if in fact it can be called that at all) can be more easily arrived at, once we understand that a key to learning is to be engaged in what we are doing. Not to be present to what one is learning is clearly not going to help us be effective learners.

Most people accept that this kind of repetition is not going to be anywhere as effective as mindful repetition, repetition where you are fully focussed on a number of elements within that practice. So in the case of repeating a word with mindful repetition, to get to the right pronunciation, you might place your attention on:

  • how the word is said
  • which part of the mouth a sound (within the word) seems to be placed in, as you say it
  • how that sound varies as the shape of your mouth changes
  • the various sound elements ( the vowels, consonants, the tone, etc) that make up that word
  • how the word that is uttered sounds to yourself
  • how the word that is uttered compares to what you hear others say
  • words that may sound similar /words that may have similar meaning

so that a heightened awareness can be reached as to the various elements that contribute to native like performance. Noticing variations, differences, aspects of production and so on are critical to any improvements you seek.

​Listen in to one way this is described to an advanced learner

repetition in language learningWhether or not a practice like this can even be called repetition is a moot point. The problem is that we only have one word in English to describe a whole range of practices that from the outside looks like repetition. So that people may be using the same term but in fact are describing very different experiences. 

Some of you may think I am being too harsh on how repetition is used in the conventional sense. If you are one of these people just think back to what you may have been told in a class or have a look at any language course book or audio program. Typically the ONLY instructions students are given is to “listen and repeat”. It is hence not surprising that many learners only do that and do not understand what else needs to be done for “success” to be assured. No wonder then that so many struggle in their efforts to learn languages.

When you are actively engaged in repetition and attentive to your practice,  you can more readily get to a point where you are satisfied with the results you have achieved. This kind of mindful engaged practice is what we need to aim towards if we are to maximise our chances of learning. And we need to turn away from what we can call mindless repetition. A recent study at the University of Maryland in the US on babies found that “It’s not necessarily helpful, for example, to just repeat the word “ball” over and over again, ….. Instead, it is more effective for a mother to repeat the word in different kinds of sentences so the child can get used to hearing the word in different contexts.”

Repeating seems to suggest that we merely repeat. It does not prompt us to reflect on what we have to do to enable that repetition to lead to results. So it is best that we move away from thinking that repeating something will help us learn or retain. Instead we need to move towards using language and practices that encourage us to be active in front of our learning, exploring the variations, the patterns and the subtleties in anything new we are learning.

One practical suggestion may be that before you repeat something, learn to listen more carefully to what you hear. In the case of pronunciation, work to distinguish as many elements as you can of what it is that you wish to improve. So when you go to “repeat” you already have a a very clear auditory memory of what it is that you are going to work on. Then, when you say what you are trying to improve listen intently to  what you say. Does it match? What needs work on? Is something missing? Is the quality of the sound similar. Was the rhythm similar? etc

By engaging in such practice we are “forced” to be more present and to pay more attention to what we say. This is more likely to promote learning as we adjust what we do, in line with our improving understanding and unfolding awareness. We are also training ourselves to be more attentive so over time, if we maintain this rigour, our learning effectiveness will improve. The more we can place ourselves in this state the more we learn to make this way of learning as our default. As this happens more and more, we become increasingly effective in our learning.

About the author 

Andrew Weiler

Andrew is passionate about doing what is necessary to enable language learners to not only improve BUT to keep improving.

  • Thanks a ton Andrew.
    It is a great post.
    I will say, I do 50-60% of what you mentioned here, but after reading this I will go full throttle in my repetitions by being more consciously engaged in the repetition.

  • I find it interesting that language experts use terms like “over and over again.” Really? Over and over. . . .again. This is right up there with “first initial” and getting things “for free.”

  • Andrew Weiler mentions the fact that there are in fact different kinds of repetition. However, he didn’t mention my favorite type of repetition and I decided to describe it in details in this comment.

    I noticed that when I mention about simultaneous repetition instead of consecutive repetition, no teacher asked why. I suspect that my statement goes into a blind spot in the minds of those who have never heard of simultaneous repetition, and remains there undetected.

    There is another concept that rarely attracts attention of teachers or educators: cross-translation. Teachers believe that cross-translation is a natural phenomenon and that nothing can be done to diminish its impact on adults who are trying hard to learn a foreign language. The human brain is built to resist a second language. There are plenty of reasons why foreign languages are challenging, but one of the most important has to do with a key difference between learning your first and second languages.

    I made the discovery and patented it in 2002 that during simultaneous repetition, cross-translation is automatically turned off. In other words, repetition reinforces cross-translation whereas simultaneous repetition turns it off automatically. Most language courses have the student listen and then repeat. It is so-called consecutive repetition and it is obsolete – you will be more successful if you will use simultaneous repetition!

    Language Bridge Technology is designed to take advantage of the benefits of simultaneous repetition, and its texts and recordings are created with this in mind. It is not listening and then repeating after a pause, but simultaneously repeating while listening and reading at the same time.

    When a learner performs simultaneous repetition, he splits his attention between three different processes: listening, reading and speaking concurrently with the recording. As a result of performing three processes that are new to him, his habit of translating all incoming information into his native language is turned off automatically. The Language Bridge Technology android application delivers the tools that turn off the natural habit of thinking in the native language. These tools allow adult learners to automatically form the direct wiring between words in the new language and their images, and start thinking in and functioning in the new language.

  • I love everything Mr. Weiler says in this article. Thank you so much! I am a Spanish teacher, and I certainly need to use a lot of repetitions in my classroom.

  • […] only two types, such as commonly understood repetition (like what is described above) and there is mindful repetition. Mindful repetition is actually understanding the meaning of what you are repeating, rather than […]

    • Mindful repetition, I believe, involves far more than understanding what you are repeating. For starters, it means being present to what you are doing. Put another way, I can understand what I am repeating but still not be present.

  • تاثیر تکرار و تمرین بر یادگیری دانش‌ آموزان – دانیون says:

    […] Step 5: Repetition Value of Repetition in Language Learning […]

  • This article raises an interesting point in regards to how language learning is viewed. Do you believe that language could be learned without conventional repetition or have I misread the piece? I’ll go through and read it again 🙂

    • Nope, you have not misread it. Language is a skill much like basketball. Basketball players keep shooting baskets, for eg, to improve their skill. Would you call that repetition? I would not. They keep working to achieve a “goal”. That makes sense in a skill. Emphasising repetition implies that repeating an action will result in improvement. It usually does not. Working to achieve a goal will, especially if the goal is skill-based (not knowledge-based)
      Language, of course, is more complex but the principle remains.

  • […] (además del ensayo-error) es fundamental en el proceso. En el post de hoy, veremos, a través de Strategies in Language Learning, que al aprender idiomas como adultos la repetición “consciente”, puede ayudarte a obtener […]

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